Call 24/7: +1 (800) 972-3282

Hard Drive Repair: A Comprehensive Guide to Recovering Data and Fixing Issues



Heloise Montini is a content writer whose background in journalism make her an asset when researching and writing tech content. Also, her personal aspirations in creative writing and PC gaming make her articles on data storage and data recovery accessible for a wide audience.

Hard Drive Repair: A Comprehensive Guide to Recovering Data and Fixing Issues


Heloise Montini is a content writer whose background in journalism make her an asset when researching and writing tech content. Also, her personal aspirations in creative writing and PC gaming make her articles on data storage and data recovery accessible for a wide audience.

I think there's an issue with my storage device, but I'm not sure Start a free evaluation →

I need help getting my data back right now Call now (800) 972-3282

Many users use hard drives as their primary storage medium for storing and managing personal and professional data. However, hard drives are delicate devices that will easily fail if not handled properly. This makes it crucial for users to know and understand hard drive repair methods.

The consequences of a hard drive failure can be severe, potentially resulting in the loss of critical data and disrupting both personal and professional activities. With proper backup measures, people can maintain their access to important files, including documents, photos, videos, and more. 

Hard drive repair solutions

Once you know why your hard drive is not working properly, you can address the proper repair solution. However, if you are not sure of what is wrong, CHKDSK is the best option to start.

If your hard drive is clicking or has signs of physical damage, contact hard drive data recovery experts and immediately stop using the drive to increase the chances of full data recovery.

1. Run antivirus program

Antivirus programs can identify and remove malware and viruses that may have infected the hard drive. 

When should you run antivirus for hard drive repair?

This solution primarily addresses hard drive corruption and system instability caused by malware infections. signs may include unusual behaviour, frequent crashes, and unexplained file changes.

Steps to scan for viruses:

  1. Choose a reputable antivirus program that offers real-time protection and regular updates to combat evolving threats.
  2. Ensure your antivirus program has the latest virus definitions to detect and remove the most recent threats effectively by updating it.
  3. Perform a full system scan
  4. After the scan completes, analyze its results to identify any detected malware. Quarantine or remove the identified threats according to the options provided by your antivirus software.
  5. Activate the real-time protection feature offered by your antivirus program to prevent future malware infections. 

2. Check the hard drive connections

Checking the hard drive connections can help resolve issues related to poor or faulty connections between the hard drive and the computer’s motherboard or power supply. This solution is particularly useful for addressing errors or issues caused by loose connections, damaged cables, or improper seating of the hard drive.

Types of errors or issues to try this solution

  • Hard drive not detected
  • Intermittent connectivity
  • Slow performance

Steps to check hard drive connections

  1. Before checking the hard drive connections, shut down the computer and disconnect it from the power source to avoid any risk of electrical shock.
  2. If the hard drive is installed internally, you must open the computer case to access the internal components.
  3. Identify the hard drive within the computer case. It will typically be a rectangular metal or plastic enclosure connected to the motherboard via a data cable (SATA or IDE) and a power cable.
  4. Ensure that both the data and power cables are securely connected to the hard drive. If they appear loose, gently push them into place until they are firmly seated.
  5. Examine the cables for any signs of damage, such as fraying or bending. If you notice any damage, consider replacing the cables with new ones to ensure reliable connections.
  6. After verifying and securing the connections, close the computer case and reconnect the power supply. Power on the computer and check if the system now detects the hard drive properly.

3. Use the CHKDSK command to check and repair hard drive errors

The CHKDSK command is a built-in Windows utility designed to check the file system for errors and repair any issues found on the hard disk, such as logical errors, bad sectors, and file system inconsistencies that may lead to data corruption or loss.

When should you use CHKDSK for hard drive repair?

This solution effectively addresses errors such as “Disk Structure Corrupted and Unreadable,” file system errors, or issues accessing files due to disk errors.

Steps to use CHKDSK:

  1. Right-click on the Start menu and select “Command Prompt (Admin)” to open Command Prompt with administrative privileges.
  2. In the Command Prompt window, type the chkdsk /f /r /x C: command and press Enter. Replace “C:” with the drive letter of the hard drive you want to check and repair.

Explanation of command options:

/f: Fixes errors on the disk.

/r: Locates bad sectors and recovers readable information.

/x: Forces the volume to dismount before the scan begins (if necessary).

  1. Depending on the size and condition of the hard drive, CHKDSK may take some time to complete the scan and repair process. It will display progress updates during the scan.
  2. Once CHKDSK completes the scan, a summary of the results will be displayed. Pay attention to any error messages or warnings reported by CHKDSK.

4. Update or reinstall drivers

Updating or reinstalling hard drive drivers can help resolve various issues related to driver corruption, compatibility issues, or outdated drivers causing malfunctioning of the hard drive.

When should you update or reinstall for hard drive repair?

When addressing errors or issues caused by outdated, corrupted, or incompatible hard drive drivers, you can reinstall or update the drivers. 

Users may experience symptoms such as the hard drive not being recognized by the operating system, frequent system crashes, or slow performance attributed to driver-related issues.

Steps to update the driver:

  1. Press the Windows + X keys on your keyboard to open the Power User menu. Then, select Device Manager from the list to open the Device Manager window.
  2. In the Device Manager window, expand the Disk drives category to view the list of installed hard drives.
  3. Right-click on the hard drive you want to update and select the Update Driver option.
  4. Choose the option to search automatically for updated driver software. Windows will search for and install any available updates for the hard drive driver.

Steps to reinstall the driver

If updating the driver does not resolve the issue, you can try reinstalling the driver.

  1. Right-click on the hard drive in Device Manager and select Uninstall device.
  2. Confirm the uninstallation and then restart your computer. Upon restart, Windows will automatically reinstall the driver for the hard drive.

If Windows does not automatically reinstall the driver or if you have a specific driver file, you can manually install it.

  1. Download the latest driver from the manufacturer’s website or use the driver provided by your computer’s manufacturer.
  2. In Device Manager, right-click on the hard drive and select Update driver.
  3. Choose the option to Browse my computer for driver software and navigate to the location of the downloaded driver files.
  4. Follow the on-screen instructions to complete the driver installation.

After updating or reinstalling the driver, verify that the hard drive is functioning correctly. Check for any error messages in Device Manager and ensure that the hard drive is recognized without issues.

5. Update firmware

Hard drive firmware is like a built-in translator for your hard drive. It allows the drive to communicate with your computer’s operating system and tells the drive how to perform its basic functions like reading and writing data.

Firmware updates often include bug fixes, performance improvements, and enhanced compatibility with the operating system, which can address underlying issues causing hard drive malfunctions.

When should you update firmware for hard drive repair?

Updating the firmware of a hard drive can resolve various issues related to performance, compatibility, and stability. 

Users may encounter signs such as slow performance, frequent errors or crashes, or failure to detect the hard drive.

Steps to update the firmware

  1. Before updating the firmware, identify the model and manufacturer of your hard drive. This information is usually available on the hard drive itself or on the computer manufacturer’s website.
  2. Visit the website of the hard drive manufacturer to find firmware updates for your specific hard drive model. Look for a support or downloads section where firmware updates are provided.
  3. Locate the firmware update for your hard drive model and download it to your computer. Make sure to download the correct firmware version for your specific hard drive model to avoid compatibility issues.
  4. Before proceeding with the firmware update, ensure that your computer is connected to a stable power source to prevent interruptions during the update process. Back up any important data stored on the hard drive as a precautionary measure.
  5. Launch the firmware update utility provided by the hard drive manufacturer. This utility may be available as a standalone application or included in a firmware update package.
  6. Follow the on-screen instructions provided by the firmware update utility to initiate the firmware update process. This may involve selecting the target hard drive, confirming the update, and agreeing to any terms and conditions.
  7. Allow the firmware update utility to complete the update process. During this time, do not power off your computer or disconnect the hard drive, as doing so could result in data loss or damage to the hard drive.
  8. After the firmware update is complete, restart your computer as instructed by the firmware update utility. This ensures that the updated firmware is properly applied and integrated into the system.

6. Format the hard drive

By formatting the hard drive, you can resolve various types of errors or issues related to file system corruption and software-related problems. 

However, remember to back up important data before proceeding, as formatting will erase all data on the drive. This is a last resort if other troubleshooting methods are unsuccessful.

When should you format the hard drive to repair it?

  • Severe file system corruption
  • Persistent software-related problems
  • Preparing for a fresh operating system (OS) installation

Steps to format a hard drive

  1. Before proceeding with the formatting process, ensure that you have backed up all important files. Formatting will erase all data, so it’s essential to have a backup to prevent data loss.
  2. Insert the installation media (such as a Windows installation USB drive or DVD) into your computer and restart the system. 
  3. Enter the BIOS or UEFI settings to set the computer to boot from the installation media.
  4. Access the Disk Management tool by selecting the Repair your computer option and navigating to Advanced options > Troubleshoot > Command Prompt
  5. Identify the hard drive that you want to format from the list of available drives in the disk management utility. Take note of the drive’s identifier (such as Disk 0, Disk 1, etc.).
  6. Use the command “format” followed by the drive letter or identifier of the hard drive (e.g., format C: /FS:NTFS).
  7. Follow the on-screen prompts to confirm the formatting process. 

Allow the process to finish uninterrupted.

  1. Once the formatting and OS installation (if applicable) are complete, you can transfer your backed-up data to the hard drive. 

7. Contact professional data recovery services

Professional data recovery services, such as SalvageData, offer specialized expertise and advanced tools to recover data from hard drives that have experienced severe physical damage, logical failures, or data loss due to various reasons. 

Types of errors or issues to try this solution

  • Physical damage. If the hard drive has suffered physical damage due to factors such as impact, water damage, or electronic component failure, professional data recovery services can help retrieve data from the damaged drive components.
  • Severe logical failures. In cases where software-based solutions like CHKDSK or formatting have been unsuccessful in resolving severe file system corruption or data loss, professional data recovery services can employ specialized techniques to recover lost data from the drive.
  • Data loss from accidental deletion or formatting. Professional data recovery services can assist users in recovering data that has been accidentally deleted, formatted, or lost due to other user errors.

Steps to contact and have your data restored by professionals

  1. Contact SalvageData by calling, opening a case on our website, or going to one of our many locations in Canada.
  2. Provide details about your hard drive issue, including any signs, error messages, or events leading to data loss.
  3. Our experts will guide you through the consultation process to understand the nature of the data loss and assess the feasibility of recovery. 
  4. Depending on your location and the specific requirements, you may be instructed to ship the damaged hard drive to a SalvageData recovery center or drop it off at a nearby location.

Check how to package your hard drive:


  1. Upon receiving the hard drive, SalvageData experts will conduct a comprehensive evaluation and diagnosis to determine the extent of damage and the chances of successful data recovery. SalvageData offers ongoing support and assistance to ensure a smooth recovery experience. Our customer service team can assist you with any questions or concerns regarding the recovered data or additional recovery needs.

Why do hard drives fail or get corrupted

Hard drives can fail for several reasons, and you must know what causes it to address the issue properly.

Note: Physically damaged hard drives require expertise and tools to be fixed and data recovered. Contact our hard drive data recovery experts to retrieve your files from physically damaged hard drives.

1. File system errors

Hard drive corruption can occur due to errors within the file system structure. These errors may result from improper shutdowns, software bugs, or interrupted disk operations. 

2. Read/write issues

Continuous read/write operations, especially in high-demand environments, can cause wear and tear on the hard drive components. Over time, this can lead to read/write errors, data corruption, and, ultimately, hard drive failure.

3. Software bugs

Software bugs or glitches in operating systems, drivers, or programs can inadvertently write incorrect data to the hard drive or cause conflicts that impact disk performance. These issues may gradually degrade hard drive functionality and contribute to corruption.

4. Virus attacks

Malicious software, such as viruses, malware, and ransomware, can infect hard drives and compromise data integrity. 

5. Damaged Master Boot Record (MBR)

The Master Boot Record (MBR) is a vital component of the hard drive’s boot process. Damage to the MBR, caused by viruses, disk errors, or improper system shutdowns, can prevent the operating system from loading correctly, resulting in boot failures and potential data loss.

6. Bad sectors

Bad sectors, which are areas of the disk that cannot reliably store data, may develop over time due to physical wear, manufacturing defects, or sudden impacts. 

7. Poor operating conditions

Extreme temperatures, humidity, and exposure to dust or debris degrades the performance and lifespan of hard drives. 

8. Power supply and connection issue

Fluctuations in power supply, electrical surges, or faulty connections can negatively impact hard drive operation.